Город Дубна

Описание (английский)

Dubna is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It has a status of naukograd (i.e. town of science), being home to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, an international nuclear physics research center and one of the largest scientific foundations in the country. It is also home to MKB Raduga, a defense aerospace company specializing in design and production of missile systems. The modern town was developed in the middle of the 20th century and town status was granted to it in 1956.
Fortress Dubna belonging to Rostov-Suzdal Principality was built in the area in 1132 by the order of Yuri Dolgoruki and existed until 1216. The fortress was destroyed during the feudal war between the sons of Vsevolod the Big Nest. The village of Gorodishche (Городище) was located on the right bank of the Volga River and was a part of the Kashin Principality. Dubna customs post (Дубненское мыто) was located in the area and was a part of the Principality of Tver.
Before the October Revolution, few villages were in the area: Podberezye was on the left bank of the Volga, and Gorodishche, Alexandrovka, Ivankovo, Yurkino, and Kozlaki (Russian: Козлаки) were on the right bank. Right after the Revolution one of the first collective farms was organized in Dubna area. In 1931, Orgburo of the Communist Party made a decision to build Volga-Moscow canal. Genrikh Yagoda, then the leader of State Political Directorate, was put in charge of construction. The Canal was completed in 1937. Ivankovo Reservoir and Ivankovo hydroelectrical plant were also created as a part of the project. Many villages and the town Korcheva were submerged under water. Dubna is mentioned in Aleksandr Solzenitsyn's book "The Gulag Archipelago" as the town built by Gulag prisoners.
The decision to build a proton accelerator for nuclear research was taken by the Soviet government in 1946. An impracticable place where the current town is situated was chosen due to remoteness from Moscow and the presence of the Ivankovo power plant nearby. The scientific leader was Igor Kurchatov. The general supervisor of the project including construction of a settlement, a road and a railway connecting it to Moscow (largely involving penal labour of Gulag inmates) was the NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria. After three years of intensive work, the accelerator was commissioned on December 13, 1949. The town of Dubna was officially inaugurated in 1956, together with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), which has developed into a large international research laboratory involved mainly in particle physics, heavy ion physics, synthesis of transuranium elements, and radiobiology. In 1960 a town of Ivankovo situated on the opposite (left) bank of the Volga was merged into Dubna. In 1964, Dubna hosted the prestigious International Conference on High Energy Physics.
Outstanding physicists of the 20th century including Nikolay Bogolyubov, Georgy Flyorov, Vladimir Veksler, Bruno Pontecorvo used to work at the institute. A number of elementary particles and transuranium nuclei (most recently, the 117th element) have been discovered and investigated there, leading to the honorary naming of chemical element 105 dubnium (Db) for the town.