Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky is a town and the administrative center of Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky District of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located along the Balyaga River in the valley between Zagan-Daban and Zagorinsky mountain ranges, 413 kilometers (257 mi) southwest of Chita.
Before exploring expeditions of the Russian Cossacks in the 17th century, the future Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky's spot was a route junction of nomadic Buryat tribes. Peter the Great granted the heads of the tribes with principality. The settlement, founded in 1789 and known then as Petrovsky Zavod (Петровский Завод), grew and developed around its iron refinery. From 1830 to 1839, it was a detention place for seventy-one Decembrists
and ten their wives, who were sent here from Chita. There is a
commemorating mark on the railway station. In a restored house of the
princess Yelena Troubetskaya, wife of Sergey Trubetskoy,
was organized a museum, which opened on October 10, 1980.
Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky's historical district there are several buildings
related to the times of Decembrists in the town.
In 1926, the settlement was granted town status and given its present name.
In 1940, a new iron refinery was built, which was of the important iron factories in the region during following decades.There is a glass plant, a sawmill, and food factories in Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky. The town is a railroad station on the Trans-Siberian Railway, and on the Chita–Ulan-Ude route.